Rohana Ulluwishewa was an Associate Professor at the Sri Jayewardenepura University in Sri Lanka. After gaining a M.Sc. from the London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, he completed his PhD at Kyushu University, Japan. In his thirty years of academic career he has worked as Senior Lecturer at the University of Brunei Darussalam, and was Visiting Fellow at Wageningen Agricultural University and Leiden University in the Netherlands, and at Leeds University, UK. He served as a consultant for many national and international development agencies and has published in numerous international journals. He was also an Honorary Research Associate at Massey University in New Zealand, where he currently lives.
Freelance Researcher and Writer
Ph.D (Kyushu University, Japan, 1985); M.Sc. (London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London,1978); B.A. Hons. (Sri Jayewardenepura University, Sri Lanka, 1970)
Phone +64 6 3583882
June 2006 – 2011: Honorary Research Associate, School of People, Environment and Planning,MasseyUniversity, Palmerston North,New Zealand
1996 – June 2006: Senior Lecturer, Department of Geography,Universityof Brunei Darussalam,Brunei Darussalam
1993 – 1996: Associate Professor,UniversityofSri Jayewardenepura
1988 – 1993: Senior Lecturer,UniversityofSri Jayewardenepura
1985 – 1988: Lecturer,UniversityofSri Jayewardenepura
1980 – 1985: Assistant Lecturer,UniversityofSri Jayewardenepura
Books, Monographs and Working Papers
Ulluwishewa, R. and R. Jayasuriya (2000) Study of Cattle and Buffalo Husbandry in the Kirindi Oya Irrigation and Settlement Project. Research Study No. 107, Agrarian Research & Traning Institute,P. O. Box 1522,Colombo 7.
Ulluwishewa, R. and Urs Geiser (1997) Searching Avenues for Sustainable Land Use: Indigenous Knowledge between Market Forces and the State’s Interventions. A Case from Sri Lanka. Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Ulluwishewa, R. (1996) Environment, Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development (in Sinhalese) Sri Lanka Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge,University of Sri Jayewardenepura,Sri Lanka
Ulluwishewa, R. and H. Ranasinghe (Eds.) (1996) Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development, Colombo, Sri Lanka March 19th – 20th, 1994.
Ulluwishewa, R. (1996) Biodynamic Agriculture and Traditional Farming Practices in Sri Lanka: A study of the potential of biodynamic agriculture for alleviating current agricultural problems in Sri Lanka.School ofGeography,University of Leeds,UK.
Ulluwishewa, R. (1994) Development, Environmental Degradation and Rural Women: A Case Study in Kirindi Oya Irrigation and Settlement Project in Sri Lanka. Department of Gender Studies in Agriculture, Wageningen Agricultural University, TheNetherlands.
Journal Articles and Book Chapters
Ulluwishewa, R. (2009) Environment, Environmental Degradation and Women’s Access to Water: A Case Study in the Kirindi Oya Irrigation and Settlement Project in Sri Lanka. In Elizabeth Ardayo-Schandort and Janet Momson Gender, the State and Different Environmental Places; Perspectives from Developing Countries in Africa and Asia. Accra:Ghana University Press pp.58-76
Ulluwishewa, R. Nick Roskruge, Garth Harmsworth and Bantong Antaran (2008) Indigenous Knowledge and Natural Resource Management: A Comparative Study of Maori in New Zealandand Dusun in BruneiDarussalam. Geojournal (2008) 73:271-284
Upex Stephen and Ulluwishewa, R. and (2003) Rice Production in BruneiDarussalam: A Review of Past and Recent Decline. South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol. 3 (1&2) pp. 71-85
Ulluwishewa, R. (2000) Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development: Implications for Sustainable Use of Renewable Resources in BruneiDarussalam. South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol. 1 (1&2) pp. 4-15
Ulluwishewa, R. (1998) Indigenous Knowledge, Science and Technology: An Overview. Vidurava (Publication of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka) Vol. 19(1) pp. 3-9
Ulluwishewa, R (1997) Gender-Bias Development and Its Consequences for Rural Women: A Case Study in a Development Project in Sri Lanka. GEOGRAPHY 82(2) pp. 110-117
Ulluwishewa, R. (1996) Gender, Development and Ecology of Emerging Food Insecurity in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography 27(2) 1996 pp.51-59
Ulluwishewa, R. (1995) Traditional Practices of Inland Fishery Resources Management in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka: Implications for Sustainability. Environmental Conservation 1995 vol.22 (2), pp. 103-109
Ulluwishewa, R. (1992) Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Sustainable Development: The case of pest control by traditional paddy farmers in Sri Lanka. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 1992 3 (1), pp.51-63
Ulluwishewa, R. (1991) Crisis of Dairy Farming in `Ruhuna’ in Sri Lanka. Vidyodaya Journal of Social Science. 2(1) pp. 17-26
Ulluwishewa, R. (1991) Traditional systems of cattle and buffalo husbandry in Sri Lanka: Present problems and quest for an alternative system Proceedings of the International Conference on Alternatives in Animal Husbandry,Witzenhausen,Germany, 1991, July 22 – 25, pp. 159-164
Ulluwishewa, R. (1991) Soil Fertility Management of Paddy Fields by Traditional Farmers in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 1991, 1(3), pp.95-106
Ulluwishewa, R. (1991) Modernization Vs Sustainability: Disintegrating Village Agro-ecocomplexes in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Environmental Conservation, 18 (2), pp.103-109
Ulluwishewa, R. (990) Environmental Impacts of Human Activities on the SouthWesternCoastof Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Exploitation and Management of Island Coast and Embayment Resources, Hainan Island, China, 1990, November 1 -10 pp. 329-337
Ulluwishewa, R. (1989) Development Planning and Gender Inequality: A case study in Mahaweli development project in Sri Lanka.Geojournal, 1989, 23 (2), pp.107-112
Ulluwishewa, R. (1989 ) A Comparison of Tethering and Free Grazing BuffaloManagement Systems in Sri Lanka. Buffalo Journal, 1989, 2:pp.121-129
Ulluwishewa, R. (1989) A Case Study of Energy Use for Domestic Cooking by Urban Dwellers in ColomboCity. Energy, 1989, 14 (6), pp.341-343
Ulluwishewa, R. (1988) Draught Animals as a Source of Power for Small Farmers in Sri Lanka: Possibilities for Improvements.Vidyodaya Journal of Social Science, 1988, 2(1&2), pp.121-132
Ulluwishewa, R. (1987) Buffalo Management under Semi-Free Grazing System: Problems and Prospects Sri Lanka Journal of Social Science, 10 (1&2) pp.39-50
Ulluwishewa, R. (1987) Small Farm Mechanization through Group Tractor Ownership. Vidyodaya Journal of Social Science, 1(1), pp. 1-5
Ulluwishewa, R. (1997) Factors Affecting the Mechanization of the Tillage Operation of Paddy Fields in Sri Lanka: A Geographical Perspective. Geojournal, 1987, 15(4), pp.393-398
Ulluwishewa, R. (1986) Tractors or Buffaloes? Impacts of Farm Size on Farm Power Selection. Vidyodaya Journal of Arts, Science & Letters, 1986, 14 (1), pp.91-101
Ulluwishewa, R., Tsuchiya, K. and Sakai, J. (1985) Some Problems of the Mechanization of PaddyLandPreparation in Sri Lankaand Lessons from Japanese Experience. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, KyushuUniversity. 29(4) pp.211-256
Ulluwishewa, R. and K. Tsuchiya (1985) Impact of the Government’s Policy on the Mechanization of Paddy Land Preparation in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 29 (4), pp.167-177
Ulluwishewa, R. and K. Tsuchiya (1984) Disintegration of the Traditional System of Exchange Labour and Mechanization of PaddyLandPreparation in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 1984, 29(2-3), pp.117-138
Ulluwishewa, R. and K. Tsuchiya (1984) A study of the motivating factors for farm mechanization in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka.Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University, (7), pp.91-117
Ulluwishewa, R. and K. Tsuchiya (1984) An Economic Explanation for the Impact of Soil Conditions on the Farm Mechanization in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University (7), pp.79-89
OTHER ACADEMIC POSITIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS:
- Honorary Research Associate, School of People, Environment and Planning, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Project Undertaken: Writing a book ‘Spirituality and Sustainable Development’.
- Visiting Scientist, Maori Resource Studies, Institute of Natural Resources, College of Science, Massey University,New Zealand, June/July 2004.
Title of the Project Undertaken: Indigenous Knowledge and Land Resource Management: A comparative study of Dusun inBrunei and Maori inNew Zealand. June/July 2004
- Senior Visiting Fellow, International Institute of Asian Studies (IIAS), Leiden University, The Netherlands, June/July 1997
Title of the Project Undertaken: Indigenous Vs Exogenous Development Models.
- Visiting Research Fellow, School of Geography, University of Leeds, United Kingdom, July March – December 1994
Title of the Project Undertaken: Biodynamic Agriculture and Traditional Farming Practices inSri Lanka: A study of the potential of biodynamic agriculture for alleviating current agricultural problems inSri Lanka.
- Visiting Research Fellow, Department of Gender Studies in Agriculture, Wageningen Agricultural University,The Netherlands, July 1993 – February 1994
Title of the Project Undertaken: Development, Environmental Degradation and Rural Women: A case study in Kirindi Oya Irrigation and Settlement Project inSri Lanka.
- Awarded the Best Paper Prize for 1991 by The Foundation for Environmental Conservation in Geneva, Switzerland for my paper titled `Modernization Vs Sustainability: Disintegration Village Agro-ecosystems in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka’ which was published in `Environmental Conservation’ 18(2), 1991
- Cited in ‘WORLD WHO IS WHO AND DOES WHAT IN ENVIRONMENT & CONSERVATION ’, the World directory of the internationally renowned scholars who have substantially contributed to environmental studies, which was published by the Environmental Foundation in Geneva, Switzerland in 1997
- Founder and the Inaugural Director, Sri Lanka Research Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (SLARCIK),University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. 1993-1996. The SLARCIK was established in collaboration with the international network of indigenous knowledge resource centres which is coordinated by Nuffic/CIRAN, The Hague in The Netherlands. The SLARCIK’s committee consists of researchers from a wide range of disciplines such as geography, biology, chemistry, history, literature and medical sciences. As the Director of SLARCIK, I organized the First National Symposium of Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development (March 19th-20th 1994) with the financial support from Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC) and International Development Research centre (IDRC). The full proceeding of the conference was published in 1995.
DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANCIES UNDERTAKEN
(1) 1993 Sri Lanka; Project Title: Strengthening the utilization of indigenous knowledge (IK) for poverty alleviation: an action research. The Janasaviya (poverty alleviation) Commissioner’s Department of the Ministry of Janasasviya sought the help of the Sri Lanka Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (SLARCIK) of Sri Jayewardenepura University to undertake this project. As the Director of the SLARCIK, I undertook this project with the help of a research assistant. This project was based on the premise that IK is the wealth of the poor, and therefore it is vital to explore the potential of IK for poverty alleviation. The objectives of the project were (1) to identify the elderly people who hold IK in various fields of knowledge, e g. farming, veterinary practices, irrigation and food preservation etc., and to prepare a directory of IK resource persons in the selected remote districts (Hambantota and Anuradhapura),(2) to collect and document their knowledge, and (3) to formulate IK based projects for the benefit of the poor. The methodology included observations and interviews with the identified elderly people in the areas. This project was funded by the Janasaviya Commissioner’s Department; Duration: 6 months.
(2) 1992 Sri Lanka; Project Title: Cattle and Buffalo Husbandry in Kirindi Oya Irrigation and Settlement Project(KOISP). I undertook this project for Agrarian Research and Training Institute (ARTI) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Research, with the help of one of its junior officers. The methodology involved observations, RRA, interviews with project management and other local officers, a comprehensive questionnaire survey and review of available literature. I was responsible for the entire study from the very first stage of writing the proposal, through to the field survey for data collection, data analysis and for report writing. The study identified the present status of cattle and buffaloes husbandry in the KOISP and its problems, and critically evaluated the KOISP’s programme for the promotion of animal husbandry, and provided recommendations. This project was funded by ARTI in collaboration with Asian Development Bank; Duration: Six months.
(3) 1990 Sri Lanka; Title: Development Planning and Gender Inequality in Mahaweli Development Project; Women’s Bureau ofSri Lanka, Ministry of Women’s Affairs. The objective of the project was to identify adverse impacts of irrigation development on rural women in the project area. In order to identify such impacts, a survey was undertaken in three selected planned settlements in the project area, and in three selected traditional villages outside of the project area, and women’s status in the planned settlement was compared with that in the traditional villages. The study points out that women’s status in the planned settlements was much inferior to that of the traditional villages in terms of their household workload, their access to income generating activities and participation in community activities, and provides recommendations to promote women’s access to the project’s benefits. This project was funded by the Women’s Bureau of Sri Lanka in collaboration with NORAD; Duration: One year
(4) 1990 Sri Lanka; Title: Intercropping under Coconut in the Coconut Triangle; Diversified Agricultural Research Project (DARP) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Research. The objective of this project was to identify the factors influencing the selection of crops and cultivation practices by coconut intercroppers in the area, and to provide recommendation for the promotion of intercropping. This study points out that intercropping does not significantly contribute to alleviate poverty, because the poor cannot afford to cultivate profitable crops due to the high capital requirement, long gestation periods and the high risk involved in the cultivation of such crops. This study provides recommendations to promote intercropping essentially for the benefit of poor. This project was funded by the DARP in collaboration with USAID; Duration: 3 months
(5) 1989/1990 Sri Lanka; Title: Environmental Profile of the Polonnaruwa District in Sri Lanka; Central Environmental Authority (CEA) of the Ministry of Environment. This mission was intended to generate information required for the proposed environmental action plan. The methodology involved observations, interviews with selected individuals in local communities, environmental groups and officers of various line departments, and a review of available literature. This study identifies major environmental problems in the district and examines the shortcomings of the existing methods of environmental management with a view to provide guidelines for an environmental action plan. In the light of field evidence, it identifies the areas where environmental problems are the outcome of lack of development and poverty, and the areas where environmental problems are the consequences of some development activities, and provides recommendations for the mitigation of the same. This project was funded by the CEA in collaboration with NORAD. Duration: Six months.
(6) 1989 Sri Lanka; Title: Draught Animals and Farm Tools: A study of selected areas in the Kurunegala District. This study was undertaken for the Farm Mechanization Research Centre (FMRC) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Research. The objective of the project was to examine the present status of the use of draught animals and traditional farm tools, and to identify constraints to the utilization of draught animals and animal powered equipment. The methodology involved observations, group and individual discussions with selected farmers in the district. The report of this study highlights some important socioeconomic and technological problems in using draught animal power for agriculture and rural transportation, and provides recommendations for the promotion of draught animal power for rural development. This project was funded by the FMRC in collaboration with GTZ; Duration: 6 months.
(7) 1988 Sri Lanka; Title: Assessing nutritional status of the settlers in the Zone B of the Mahaweli Development Project. This study was undertaken for the Mahaweli Training Centre (Zone B, Welikanda), Mahaweli Development Authority, Ministry of Irrigation and Mahaweli Development. The Mahaweli Training Centre was in the process of designing a comprehensive training programme on nutrition for the benefit of the settler women in the Zone B of the Project with the help of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). The objective of my assignment was to assess the existing nutritional status among the settlers, to ascertain the knowledge of nutrition among the settler women, and to provide guidelines for the proposed training programme. I undertook this study with the support of a professional nutritionist. The methodology involved a measuring nutritional status of the children of the selected settler families in the Zone B, interviews with relevant officers and a comprehensive questionnaire survey. This project was funded by the Mahaweli Development Authority in collaboration with CIDA; Duration: 3 months.
(8) 1988 Sri Lanka; Title: Evaluation of the Phase 1: Sri Lanka Dry Zone Revitalization Project, Canadian Hunger Foundation (CHF),Ottawa. The Dry Zone revitalization project (funded by the Canadian Hunger Foundation) was being implemented by the Sri Lanka Centre for Development Studies (Marga Institute). I was hired by the Canadian Hunger Foundation to evaluate Phase 1 of the project with the help of a Canadian consultant. The evaluation methodology involved observations, discussions with project management, interviews with randomly selected beneficiaries of the project and some community leaders in the project area. The evaluation report identified strengths and weakness of the Phase 1 of the project and provided recommendations for Phase 2. This project was funded by the Marga Institute/ CHF; 3 weeks.
(9) 1986 Sri Lanka; Title: Use of Tractors for Intercropping under Coconut. Appropriate Technology, Research and Development Centre (ATRDC), Ministry of Agriculture. For ploughing and soil preparation for intercropping under coconut palms, farmers use the tractors, which were designed to plough soft and wet soils in wet paddy fields, not for dry and hard soils under coconut. Therefore use of tractors for intercropping results in a wide range of problems. The ATRDC was in the process of designing a tractor suitable for intercropping under coconut. I was hired by the ATRDC to undertake this study with the help of three research assistants. Its objectives were to assess the current status of tractor utilization for intercropping under coconut, to identify the problems faced by the tractor users due to the unsuitability of the tractors for intercropping under coconut, and to provide guidelines for the team of engineers who were designing an ‘appropriate tractor’ for intercropping. The methodology involved observations, discussions with selected intercroppers, and a questionnaire survey in 3 selected agrarian service divisions in the Kurunegala District; This project was funded by the ATRDC in collaboration with JAICA; Duration: 4 months.